Economies covered

  • 2009-2010 Edition dr_dot2009-2010
  • 2007-2008 Edition dr_dot2007-2008
  • 2005-2006 Edition dr_dot2005-2006
  • 2003-2004 Edition dr_dot2003-2004

Click the dot to read the chapters. 

.af Afghanistan dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.au Australia dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.bd Bangladesh dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.bn Brunei Darussalam dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.bt Bhutan dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.cn China dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.hk Hong Kong dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.id Indonesia dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.in India dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.ir Iran dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006
.jp Japan dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.kh Cambodia dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.kp North Korea dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008

.kr South Korea
dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.la Lao PDR
dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.lk Sri Lanka
dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.mm Myanmar
dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.mn Mongolia
dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.mo Macau
dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.mv Maldives
dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006
.my Malaysia
dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.np Nepal
dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.nz New Zealand
dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.ph Philippines
dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.pk Pakistan
dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.sg Singapore
dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.th Thaïland
dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.tl / .tp Timor-Leste
dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.tw Taiwan
dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
.vn Vietnam
dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006 dr_dot2003-2004
SAARC dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008
ASEAN
dr_dot2009-2010 dr_dot2007-2008 dr_dot2005-2006
APEC dr_dot2009-2010
dr_dot2005-2006

ICT for development in Asia Pacific: Emerging themes in a diverse region

Article Index
ICT for development in Asia Pacific: Emerging themes in a diverse region
What do we mean by ICTD
ICTD: The state of the art
Globalzation and Migration
Evaluating Gender in ICTD
ICTD and Environmental Sustainability
INFRASTRUCTURE
Mobile and Wirelss
Technological Developments (Including Convergence)
EDUCATION AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
MEDIA AND CONTENT DEVELOPMENT
CONCLUSION
BIBLIOGRAPHY
ICTD and Environmental Sustainability

It has already been noted that the issue of sustainability is being given increasing importance in ICTD. This is driven by an increasing awareness that the pace of change suggested by ICT innovation has not necessarily led to rapid improvements in the relative positions of rich and poor peoples with respect to equity and life experience (McNamara 2003). When ICTs revolutionize non-digital practices, how can we ensure that those benefits are maximized not just in the immediate present, but for generations to come? This perspective prompts us to consider the physical environments where people live and work in the information economy. These concerns become particularly pressing in an era of global warming, an unintended consequence of previous technological innovations that have been central to economic development (The Presidents of National Science Academies 2005). The potential of ICTs to reduce resource consumption - through the reduction of paper use and travel expenses and through efficiency gains - is well-known. However, the negative environmental effects do seem to be distributed to less developed countries where appropriate regulatory controls are not always in place to govern the disposal of obsolete computer products.

Grossman (2006) notes that the world generates somewhere between 20 and 50 million metric tons of "e-waste" every year, and that the elements that illuminate liquid crystal display (LCD) screens in portable technologies can cause damage to the brain and other vital organs. These issues are not necessarily present when we are considering the ICTD potential of mobile phones for example. But when we note that over one billion phones are expected to be sold in 2009, and that only 5 percent of them are ever recycled, the scale of the issue becomes clear (Huang and Truong 2008).

These waste products enter other parts of the human ecosystem in ways we do not expect. For example, Weidenhamer and Clement (2007) found that some jewellery manufactured in China was highly leaded (ranging from 0.07 percent to 99.1 percent lead content), consistent with the use of recycled solder from electronics production. Such jewellery has already caused consumer deaths and, undoubtedly, there are negative effects on those working in the manufacture of these items. It should be noted that China is unique only in the scale of its manufacturing, and it has taken many legislative steps to ensure the responsible use of e-waste (People's Republic of China - Ministry of Information 2006). However, it is clear that with e-waste being increasingly sent to developing countries in the region for disposal, the issue will require stronger enforcement of regulations and sensitivity to the downstream effects of electronic production. Ironically, although ICTs can reduce the use of resources such as paper, the largest gains in resource savings occur in already resource-rich regions, while unsafe byproducts are much more likely to be distributed in poorer regions.



 

Add comment


Security code
Refresh